ANAXIMANDER of MILETOS (c.611 – c.547 BC)

‘Apeiron is the basis of all matter’

mosaic of Anaximander

Anaximander

A pupil of THALES of MILETUS. As with Thales, little is known about Anaximander’s life and most of what we know comes from later Greeks, notably Aristotle and Theophrastus.
Anaximander conceptualised the Earth as suspended completely unsupported at the centre of the universe. It had been assumed by other thinkers that the Earth was a flat disc held in place by water, pillars or some other physical structure. Although without a notion of gravity, Anaximander supported his argument by supposing that the Earth, being at the centre of the universe, at equal distances from the extremes,

‘has no inclination to move up rather than down or sideways; and since it is impossible to move in opposite directions at the same time, it necessarily stays where it is’ – ( ARISTOTLE explaining Anaximander’s theory).

Moreover, because the Earth was suspended freely, it allowed Anaximander to propose the idea that the sun, moon and stars orbited in full circles around the Earth.

Anaximander proposed the idea of space or a universe with depth. Rather than the view of the Earth caged in a planetarium style ‘celestial vault’, he argued the celestial bodies (the sun, moon and stars) were different distances away from the Earth, with space or air between them.

Picture of head of statue said to depict ANAXIMENES ©

ANAXIMENES

ANAXIMENES of MILETUS (c.585 – c.528 BCE)

‘AIR is the basis of all matter’

Bust of HERACLEITOS ©

HERACLEITUS

HERACLEITUS of EPHESUS (c.535 – c.475 BCE)

‘FIRE is the basis of all matter’

Thales’ pupil Anaximander avoided the issue of ‘prote hyle‘, or first matter by contending that all materials were composed of apeiron, the indefinite and unknowable first substance. Wanting to understand the transformations observed daily in the world; water freezing or boiling away, wood burning, metals melting; Anaximander believed that change came about through the agency of contending opposite qualities; hot and cold, dry and moist.

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