1923 – Toronto, Canada
‘Discovery of insulin’
Early research had shown that there was almost certainly a link between the pancreas and diabetes, but at the time it was not understood what it was.
We now know a hormone from the pancreas controls the flow of sugar into the blood stream. Diabetics lack this function and are gradually killed by uncontrolled glucose input into the body’s systems.
Banting believed that the islets of Langerhans might be the most likely site for the production of this hormone and began a series of tests using laboratory animals.
After successfully treating dogs – showing signs of diabetes after the pancreas had been removed – with a solution prepared from an extract from the islets of Langerhans, Banting’s team (Best, MacLeod and Collip) purified their extract and named it insulin.
Human trials successfully took place in 1923 and dying patients were restored to health. The same year, industrial production of insulin from pigs’ pancreas began.
In the Second World War Banting undertook dangerous research into poisonous gas and was killed in an air crash while flying from Canada to the United Kingdom.