1869 – Russia

‘The properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights’

Arrange the atoms in order of their atomic weight (relative atomic mass) and elements are also arranged in order of their properties. This arrangement of the elements is called the periodic table.

In the modern periodic table elements are no longer arranged by their atomic weight but by a more fundamental quantity; ‘atomic number’.

photo portrait of DIMITRY IVANOVICH MENDELEYEV© - link to Britannica online article


The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of one of its atoms; the number of neutrons, which contributes to atomic weight, is ignored. The modern periodic law is that ‘The properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers’.

In 1860 Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev attended a chemistry conference in Karlsruhe where the Italian Stanislao Cannizzaro’s speech announcing his rediscovery of the distinction between atoms and molecules (originally announced in 1811 by AVOGADRO) made a profound impression.

The German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780-1849) had recognised mathematical patterns in elements that had similar properties. He found that adding the atomic weights of calcium (40) and barium (137) and dividing the total in two left a value close to the weight of strontium (88). Finding this same pattern repeated for lithium, sodium and potassium, and for chlorine, bromine and iodine confirmed the relationship, which he termed the Law of Triads.

In 1862, French scientist Alexandre Beguyer de Chancourtois developed a way of representing the elements by wrapping a helical list around a cylinder.

A repeating pattern in natural phenomena is a strong indication that there exists a simple, compact description.
The periodic table suggests that the distinct atoms of the elements may be described in terms of significantly fewer building blocks than the number of the individual elements. Atoms, then, were made of significantly fewer subatomic building blocks.

In 1869 the 35-year-old Mendeleev published a table of the 61 elements then known. His list of elements – ‘On the Relation of the Properties to the Atomic Weights of Elements’ – occupied a grid where the atomic weight increased as you went down a column (periods) and the elements in any particular row (groups or families) shared similar properties and valencies (metals and gases, for instance).

Mendeleev had to juggle the order of a few elements, assuming their weights to have been incorrectly measured, and predicted that some undiscovered elements would fill the gaps in the table, based on the properties of the elements surrounding the gaps.
The modern periodic table has been turned sideways.

By 1886, with the discoveries of gallium, scandium and germanium with the properties he had foretold, his prediction was fulfilled. By 1925, chemists had successfully identified all the 92 elements they believed to exist in nature. The first artificial element, neptunium, was synthesised in 1940. Many more elements have been made since then.

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‘The Genesis of a Law of Nature’ – Mendeleev


IVAN PAVLOV (1849-1936)

1903 – Russia

photographic portrait of IVAN PAVLOV ©


‘A conditioned reflex is a learnt response to an environmental stimulus’

The process of learning to connect a stimulus to a reflex is called conditioning.

An innate or built-in reflex is something we do automatically without thinking (such as moving our hand away from a flame).

Photograph of Ivan Pavlov and his staff c1925. Pavlov whose views formed the foundation of behaviorism believed that learning consisted of a series of conditioned responses.

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1936 – Russia

‘In the Earth’s early atmosphere simple inorganic compounds combined to form complex organic compounds, which formed the first living cell’



Viewed correctly, life is compatible with the basic principles of physics and chemistry.

Life is possible, but entropy increases. The late nineteenth century way of looking at biological systems fits into this scheme – looking for patterns in large numbers – in assigning precise properties to classes and groups, not to individuals. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, an organism expended vital force in order to perform its work of synthesis and morphogenesis; at the end of the century, the belief was that it consumed energy.

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